Of the 13 first British colonies, the United States grew to 50 states and one federal district, which together cover more than 3.5 million square miles. Their natural environment, population and other characteristics differ from each other. But they all share sovereignty with the federal government and have their own constitution, legislative, judicial. Also executive power and capitals. This article is about US history.
US History – European Colonization
US history begins in 1492, when Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas more than ten thousand years ago and entered the era of European colonization of the New World.
The nomadic ancestors of modern Native Americans began to settle on the North American continent. But the existence of the States began with an independent state with its Declaration of Independence.
In the 1770s, there were about two and a half million people in thirteen colonies. Colonies developed, flourished, and developed their own political and legal systems.
As a result of the Franco-Indian war, Britain tried to recover the costs associated with the war by introducing a series of additional taxes on the colonists. So the British left part of their army in the colonies to help ensure their protection. Also the continued presence of British troops posed a threat to US self-government. Political troubles led to the total war of 1775.
After a fierce debate among the colonies, they resolutely declared their independence from Great Britain. And in 1776, the Declaration of Independence was formally signed.
Huge open spaces of the coast
During and after the war, the United States was united under the weak federal government that established the Confederation Articles. The new Constitution was written in 1789 and became the basis for the federal government of the United States.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, another 37 new states were added to the United States. The country has expanded from coast to coast and beyond.
Spanning from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and spanning over 3,790,000 square kilometers, the United States has a remarkable variety of landscape and climate.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the state intervened in US economic life by regulating it. But the abuse of railways in relation to rates and services led to the fact that the Interstate Commission on Trade in 1887 strengthened numerous inspections and strictly regulated all aspects of the activities of American railways.
Economic programs in economic development
The growth of large corporate enterprises capable of monopolizing this segment of the economy has led to federal laws designed to manage trusts. The Sherman Act of 1890, reinforced by the Clayton Act of 1914 and subsequent acts, were established by the federal government as the regulator of big business.
This tradition of government intervention in the economy was reinforced during the Great Depression of the thirties of the twentieth century. A National Labor Relations Board was established.
The expansion of economic regulatory programs accelerated in the 1960s and early 1970s with the creation of federal environmental committees, an equal employment opportunity commission, occupational safety and health.
Efficiency of trade agreements
Federal price controls and subsidized production remain central to stabilizing US agriculture. The Law on Mutual Trade Agreement of 1934, state regulation of foreign trade tended to decrease the level of protection, and this trend was supported in 1945 by the Law on Trade Expansion Agreements, in 1962 the Law on Trade Expansion, and in 1974 the Trade Law.
Free trade during World War II promoted American participation in the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
With the formation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, the most favorable for the nation was the expansion of policies in trade in services and other areas.
In 1993, Congress approved the North American Free Trade Agreement, which extended the free trade agreement between Canada and the United States, including Mexico. Intensive production of goods, such as clothing and textiles, was declining, while the automotive industry had great development prospects.
Economic processes in the country
In 2003, President George W. Bush introduced and Congress passed a tax cut. 350 billion dollars were allocated to stimulate the economy. Democrats alluded to the loss of 2.7 million private-sector jobs during the first three years of the Bush administration. As evidence that the President had no control over the economy.
When President Obama took office on January 20, 2009, the economy was issue number 1. But it remains the same today. Also job losses peaked in early 2009, and steadily declined throughout the year. The processes of the country’s economy were aimed at creating additional jobs in early 2010, but employers could not significantly improve the situation. A similar trend took place in 2011, and then again in 2012. America’s Demographic Course Three main factors in the demographic situation
There are three major changes taking place in the United States that are of particular relevance to the country’s demographic situation.
- Firstly, this is an aging population;
- Secondly, the number of immigrants coming to the USA is increasing. Which contributes to population growth and slightly balancing the aging of the population.
- Thirdly, the increase in racial and ethnic diversity. In particular, the proportion of Hispanic and Asian populations has increased, which raises questions of social integration. These three changes interact with each other in a way that affects political debate, ranging from the elderly, social inclusion, and labor.
Migration processes and age structure of US regions
The US population will grow by 40% between 2006 and 2050.
Significant differences between regions contribute to the fact that young people leave the northern and inner regions of the country.
This means that there is a more serious age structure in these regions. Today most people are 65 years of age or older. Consequently, there is not only a national problem affecting the aging of federal programs such as social security and medicine. But also government spending on support services for older American citizens.
Forecasts show that in the coming decades, healthcare and social security in the distribution of the US federal budget will be 91% of projected income. Costs for older people will be adjusted.
Also the retirement age may be increased or various benefits reduced, the rest will have to pay higher taxes. So keeping benefits and retirement age at the current level can lead to high taxes for the relatively young generation of the country.
This is why people are starting to look at immigration as a possible way to increase the number of young people. Also there are some issues related to immigration.
30% of the population of foreign origin is called “undocumented”. Because they come to the United States illegally, or cross the border without permission or with temporary permission to stay in the country.
But unskilled workers are a very large part of these undocumented populations. About 78% of illegal immigrants and 41% of legal immigrants come from Latin America, while the majority of legal immigrants from Asia. This creates some tension and clash of cultures in the United States.
Of legal immigrants, about two-thirds come to the United States for family relationships, not for work purposes. About 19% of immigrants come to the United States to work, 17% for other reasons.
American Social Policy Providing Social Justice with New Programs
In the 1970-1980s, American public policy worked in a conservative direction. But the growth rate of social spending by the state has fallen sharply. So they eliminated or altered many social programs.
The approach of the government and the presidential administration to the public and their key problems, goals and objectives of social policy has changed. So the state faced the question of a choice between social justice and economic efficiency.
During the years of the Reagan Presidency, there was a rejection of the idea of the obligation of public policy to ensure equality and social justice. However, the changes were not as radical as expected.
Social programs as a whole did not change, and social spending in the early 90s accounted for 50% of the federal budget and 60% of the state and local budgets management.
US Social Protection
US Social Security is mainly funded through special payroll taxes. Tax deposits are formally assigned to the Federal insurance for old age and breadwinner, in case of disability, medical insurance. But it all makes up a social security trust fund.
Social Security in the United States is a complex system of payments, benefits, and subsidies. Also US citizens regularly receive state social insurance benefits.
Social insurance is working American citizens and their families if they meet certain requirements. Americans who have limited income and resources, as well as upon retirement, in case of divorce or in the event of the death of one of the spouses, have right to state social assistance.
US influence on the world stage
President Truman believed that the United States needed a tougher policy toward the Russians. Due to the desire of the Soviets to expand their possessions in the West. And the fact that Stalin had a pathological distrust of the United States. But it was impossible to come to a peaceful settlement with the USSR in those years.
But today, the foreign policy of the United States is to interact with foreign countries and establish standard interactions for organizations, corporations and individuals. Also the USA is a very influential country in the world.
The strategies chosen by the state are for protecting the country and achieving its political goals on the world stage.
United States Executive Representatives Election
The United States is a federal republic. The president is elected for a four-year term and can only be re-elected once. The bicameral Congress consists of 100 members of the Senate, elected for a six-year term, with one third of the seats becoming vacant every two years. And 435 members of the House of Representatives, elected every two years. But the minimum age is 18 years.
Symbol of America’s freedom and democracy
Cities across America are centers of population, commerce, and culture. Also the United States of America has many geographical and historical sites.
But the main attraction of the United States of America is the Statue of Liberty, which is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy. So everyone who approaches a majestic monument experiences unique feelings and admiration for this amazing architectural masterpiece.